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You may also notify us by sending mail to the following address:. Online Marketing Department Attn: Barr successfully helmed Columbia to victory, and Lipton's noted fair play provided unprecedented popular appeal to the sport and to his tea brand.

Although upset with the Shamrock , Lipton challenged again in , turning this time to George Lennox Watson for a "cup-lifter": Shamrock II , Watson's fourth and final challenger, was the first cup contender to be thoroughly tank-tested.

To defend the Cup, businessman Thomas W. Lawson funded for Boston designer Bowdoin B. Crowninshield a daring project: Lipton persisted in a third challenge in With the aim to fend off Lipton's challenges indefinitely, the NYYC garnered a huge budget for a single cup contender, whose design would be commissioned to Herreshoff again.

Improving on the Independence and his previous designs, the new defender Reliance remains the largest race sloop ever built.

She featured a ballasted rudder, dual-speed winches below decks, and a cork-decked aluminium topside that hid running rigging.

The design focus on balance was exemplary, but the extreme yacht also required the skills of an excellent skipper, which defaulted choice options to Charlie Barr.

Despite the immense success of the Reliance , she was used only one season, her design and maintenance keeping her from being used for any other purpose than for a cup defense.

The extremity of both cup contenders encouraged Nathanael Herreshoff to make boats more wholesome and durable by devising a new rule. Proposing in the same year the Universal Rule , he added the elements of overall length and displacement into the rating, to the benefit of heavy, voluminous hulls and also divided boats into classes, without handicapping sail area.

Lipton long pleaded for a smaller size of yachts in the new rule, and the NYYC conceded to seventy-five footers in Lipton turned to Charles Ernest Nicholson for his fourth challenge, and got a superb design under the inauspicious shape of Shamrock IV , with a flat transom.

Barr had died, but his crew manned the Resolute , which faced stiff competition from Vanitie , but went on to win the selection trials, before the Cup was suspended as World War I broke out.

The Vagrant arrived on the 8th. Having no radio, the crew were unaware of the declaration of war. Finding all navigational markers missing, they attempted to pick their own way in through the barrier reef.

David's Battery fired a warning shot to bring them to a halt. Shamrock IV and Erin arrived the next day. The America's Cup was cancelled for that year.

The Shamrock IV and Erin proceeded to New York, from where the Erin returned to Britain while Shamrock IV was laid up in the Erie Basin dry dock until , when she received some adjustments to her build and ballast, just before the races were held.

Despite Shamrock IV ' s severe rating, she took the first two races from the defender Resolute , and came closer to winning back the Cup than any previous challenger.

The Resolute won every subsequent race of the event. Shamrock IV was never raced again, but the universal rule drew significant appeal, especially in the small M-Class.

Believing that the new rule offered a serious opportunity for the British to take the Cup, Lipton challenged for the fifth and last time at age 79, in The J-Class was chosen for the contest, to which were added Lloyds ' A1 scantling rules in order to ensure that the yachts would be seaworthy and evenly matched, given the Deed of Gift requirement for yachts to sail to the match on their "own bottom.

Novel rigging technology now permitted the Bermuda rig to replace the gaff rig. Meanwhile, Herreshoff's son, Lewis Francis Herreshoff , designed a radical boat: The Whirlwind , despite being the most advanced boat with her double-ended "canoe" build and electronic instruments, maneuvered too clumsily.

The old footers Resolute and Vanitie were rebuilt and converted to the J-Class to serve as trial horses. The Enterprise ' s skipper Harold Vanderbilt won the selection trials with great difficulty.

When Shamrock V was revealed, she was an outdated wooden boat with a wooden mast and performed poorly to windward. Lipton died in , and English aviation industrialist Sir Thomas Sopwith bought Shamrock V with the intent of preparing the next challenge.

To Nicholson's skills, he added aeronautical expertise and materials that would intensify the rivalry into a technological race.

Endeavour received significant innovations, but Sopwith failed to secure the services of his entire Shamrock V professional crew due to a pay strike.

He hired amateurs to complete his team, and while the Endeavour was described unanimously as the faster boat in the Cup, taking the first two races, failed tactics and crew inexperience lost her the following four races to Vanderbilt's new defender Rainbow.

To challenge again, Sopwith prepared himself a year early. In Nicholson designed and built the Endeavour II to the maximum waterline length allowed, and numerous updates to the rig made her even faster than her predecessor.

A change in the America's Cup rules now allowed a contending yacht to be declared 30 days before the races, so both the Endeavour and Endeavour II were shipped to Newport, where the RYS held selection series before declaring Endeavour II as the challenger.

Vanderbilt, taking all syndicate defense costs to himself, commissioned Starling Burgess and the young designer Olin Stephens to provide designs.

They anonymously produced three designs each, and thoroughly tank-tested boat models of the six designs, until model C was selected for its projected performance in light airs.

The resulting defender Ranger was even more accomplished than her challenger, and Vanderbilt steered his last J-Class boat to a straight victory.

The J-class yachts from the s remained the default for the cup, but post-war economic realities meant that no-one could afford to challenge in this hugely expensive class.

As twenty years had passed since the last challenge, the NYYC looked for a cheaper alternative in order to restart interest in the cup.

The first post-war challenge was in , again from the British. In , another Australian challenger, Dame Pattie , lost to the innovative Olin Stephens design Intrepid which won again in , to become the second yacht, after Columbia of , to defend the Cup twice.

For the America's Cup, interest in challenging was so high that the NYYC allowed the Challenger of Record the original yacht club presenting the challenge accepted for the match to organize a regatta among multiple challengers with the winner being substituted as challenger and going on to the cup match.

This innovation has been used ever since, except for the default deed of gift matches in and Alan Bond , an Australian businessman, made three unsuccessful challenges between and In the cup was successfully defended by Courageous , which successfully defended again in , at which time she was skippered by Ted Turner.

In the Cup was defended by Freedom. Bond returned in for a fourth challenge, complete with a symbolic golden wrench which he claimed would be used to unbolt the cup from its plinth, so that he could take it back to Australia.

In there were seven challengers for the cup competing for the inaugural Louis Vuitton Cup , the winner of which would go on to the America's Cup match against the NYYC's yacht selected in their trials.

Sporting the now famous Boxing Kangaroo flag and the controversial winged keel designed by Ben Lexcen , the hull of Australia II was kept under wraps between races and was subject to attempts by the NYYC to disqualify the boat.

In the cup races, the Australians got off to a bad start with equipment failures and false starts giving the defenders a head start.

But it was not to be a repeat of the last years: This was the first time the NYYC had lost the cup in years and 26 challenges.

Alan Bond joked that the cup would be renamed "The Australia's Cup". For the first time since its inception the America's Cup was defended outside of the US off the coast of Fremantle.

This was a new era for the cup with interest in competing being shown by many countries. Technology was now playing an increasing role in yacht design.

The winner, Australia II, had sported the revolutionary winged keel , and the New Zealand boat that Conner had beaten in the Louis Vuitton Cup final in Fremantle was the first metre class to have a hull of fiberglass , rather than aluminum or wood.

The metre class rules stipulated that the hull had to be the same thickness throughout and could not be made lighter in the bow and stern.

The other challengers demanded that core samples be taken from the plastic hull to show its thickness. At one press conference Dennis Conner asked, "Why would you build a plastic yacht Chris Dickson , skipper of the Kiwi Magic KZ 7 , took the controversy in stride and with humor, and Conner has subsequently stated his regret over his comment.

Eventually some small holes were drilled to test the hull, and ultrasonic testing was done to rule out air pockets in the construction.

The boat was found to be within class rules, and the issue was set aside. Fay ceremoniously lay down in front of the measurer before the samples were taken.

In , soon after Conner had won back the cup with Stars and Stripes but before the San Diego Yacht Club had publicly issued terms for the next regatta, a New Zealand syndicate, again led by merchant banker Sir Michael Fay , lodged a surprise challenge.

This was an unwelcome challenge to the San Diego Yacht Club, who wanted to continue to run Cup regattas using metre yachts. The court ordered SDYC to accept it and negotiate mutually agreeable terms for a match, or to race under the default provisions of the Deed, or to forfeit the cup to MBBC.

They recognized that a catamaran was not expressly prohibited under the rules. Multihulls, due to a lower wetted surface area and vastly lower mass, are inherently faster than equal-length monohulls.

Conner, however, left nothing to chance and commissioned a cutting edge design with a wing sail, named—as his metre yachts had been— Stars and Stripes.

The two yachts raced under the simple terms of the deed in September, New Zealand predictably lost by a huge margin. Fay then took SDYC back to court, arguing that the race had been unfair, certainly not the "friendly competition between nations", envisaged in the Deed of Gift.

Ciparick agreed and awarded New Zealand the Cup. Fay then appealed to New York's highest court and lost. Thus SDYC successfully defended the cup in what observers described as the most controversial cup match to that point.

In the wake of the controversies, the International America's Cup Class IACC was introduced, replacing the metre class that had been used since The run-up to the Cup was notable for the televised sinking of oneAustralia during the fourth round robin of the Louis Vuitton challenger selection series , with all hands escaping uninjured.

The defender selection series also had the first mostly female with one man crew sailing the yacht USA , nicknamed "Mighty Mary".

The man, Benjamin Peri Nathan, was subsequently found guilty of criminal damage and sentenced to 18 months imprisonment reduced from 34 months on appeal.

The damage was so severe that it was feared that the cup was irreparable. London's Garrards silversmiths, who had manufactured the cup in , painstakingly restored the trophy to its original condition over three months, free of charge.

This was the first America's Cup to be contested without an American challenger or defender. During the Twelve-Metre era, the New York Yacht Club, citing the Deed language that the Cup should be "perpetually a Challenge Cup for friendly competition between foreign countries", had adopted several interpretive resolutions intended to strengthen nationality requirements.

By , these resolutions specified that besides being constructed in the country of the challenger or defender, a yacht had to be designed by and crewed by nationals of the country where the yacht club was located.

Globalization made it increasingly impractical to enforce design nationality rules, and starting in , the Royal Perth Yacht Club began relaxing this requirement.

Numerous members of the New Zealand AC team became key members of the Swiss Alinghi challenge, led by biotechnology entrepreneur Ernesto Bertarelli.

To satisfy the crew nationality requirements, New Zealand team members of Alinghi took up residence in Switzerland.

In , several strong challengers vied for the right to sail for the cup in Auckland during the challenger selection series.

For the challenge, SNG rescinded all interpretive resolutions to the deed, essentially leaving "constructed in country" as the only remaining nationality requirement.

The defense of the cup was held in Valencia , Spain. This was the first time since the original Isle of Wight race that the America's Cup regatta had been held in Europe, or in a country different from that of the defender necessary because Switzerland, despite having huge lakes and a national passion for sailing, does not border a "sea or arm of the sea" as specified in the Deed.

Eleven challenging yacht clubs from 9 countries submitted formal entries. When SNG and CNEV published their protocol for the 33rd America's Cup, there was criticism over its terms, with some teams and yacht clubs calling it the worst protocol in the history of the event.

Since the two parties were unable to agree otherwise, the match took place as a one-on-one Deed of Gift match [nb 1] with no other clubs or teams participating.

The rigid wing sail of the challenging trimaran USA provided a decisive advantage, and it won the America's Cup 2—0.

Paralleling the "Acts" of the 32nd America's Cup—a series of preliminary events in different venues leading-up to the actual event—a new series, the America's Cup World Series was to be run using AC45 class boats smaller one-design versions of the AC72s , in various world venues in and On 12 May , Club Nautico di Roma withdrew from the competition, citing challenges in raising sufficient funds to field a competitive team.

The resulting match between the USA and NZ was the longest on record both in calendar time, and the number of races, with the Golden Gate Yacht Club staging an improbable come-from-behind victory, winning eight straight races to defend the cup and beat New Zealand 9—8.

When an even smaller 50ft wingsail foiling catamaran class rule amendment was voted in April , Luna Rossa Challenge also withdrew, citing significant costs wasted on the development of the larger vessel.

In June , for the first time in history, an America's Cup race included fresh water sailing, when preliminary races were held on Lake Michigan , based in Chicago, Illinois, United States, North America.

New Zealand won the America's Cup with a score of 7 to 1. New York Yacht Club: In Goodyear chairman Paul W. The film Wind is largely about the Americas Cup racing towards the end of the meter era.

Although the names have been changed, it largely about Dennis Conner 's s cycle of loss and comeback. The film is generally loved by sailors due to the high-quality cinematography and great efforts taken to portray meter yachts engaging in match racing.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the international yachting trophy. For other uses, see America's Cup disambiguation.

For the recent race, see America's Cup. Challenger Valkyrie II , This section does not cite any sources.

Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

August Learn how and when to remove this template message. Defender SUI , List of America's Cup challengers and defenders. List of yacht clubs that have competed for the America's Cup.

All such races shall be on ocean courses, free from headlands, as follows: The first race, twenty nautical miles 37 km to windward and return; the second race an equilateral triangular race of thirty-nine nautical miles, the first side of which shall be a beat to windward; the third race if necessary twenty nautical miles 37 km to windward and return; and one week day shall intervene between the conclusion of one race and the starting of the next race.

These ocean courses shall be practicable in all parts for vessels of twenty-two feet draught of water, and shall be selected by the Club holding the Cup; and these races shall be sailed subject to its rules and sailing regulations so far as the same do not conflict with the provisions of this deed of gift, but without any times allowances whatever.

The challenged Club shall not be required to name its representative vessel until at a time agreed upon for the start, but the vessel when named must compete in all the races, and each of such races must be completed within seven hours.

Deed of Gift on Wikisource. Retrieved 26 March Sir Peter Blake Trust. Archived from the original on 11 December Royal New Zealand Yacht Squadron.

The America's Cup — Sir Ben Ainslie backs move to smaller boats". Retrieved 30 August Archived from the original on 3 March The Lawson History of the America's Cup.

The New York Times. Archived from the original on 5 February The Canadian Mud Turtle". Charles Scribner's Sons Press.

Rockwell and Churchill Press. America's Cup hall of Fame. Temple to the Wind:


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